With "Green Living", a trend has taken hold in the living rooms, which sustainably influences everyday life
Homeowners, but also architects and urban planners are responsible for the "Sustainable Building Guide" by the Federal Ministry for the Environment. The aim is to increase 2050 greenhouse gas emissions by 80 to 95% and primary energy demand in the building sector by 80 % to reduce.
There are numerous seals of quality which concern different criteria of sustainability in the construction industry. For example, the "German seal of approval for sustainable construction" (gold, silver, bronze) and international certifications for green building such as LEED, BREAM. Four basic principles can be cited as representative of the multitude of criteria.
Before the start of the construction phase, the decision is made as to where the building should be erected. Preferably, a place should be chosen where nature already offers space and ecosystems can be obtained. While efficient construction has always been the focus, today it is also about the concentration on the essential. The so-called sufficiency thought backs up what is really needed and what size is sufficient. Land take-up should be reduced. Trees, bushes and meadows around the building are preserved as far as possible before artificial new gardens are built. Building in nature versus building instead of nature.
The protection of the local environment also requires the reduction of pollutants that can escape from building materials. A social aspect is the inclusion of the environment in the building, eg through publicly accessible gardens and interiors.
Renewable and local resources
Architects are called upon to put renewable energies at the center of their work. The sun can not only generate energy in the form of solar systems and heat buildings. Optimally used daylight can minimize the use of lighting systems during the day. The warming effects of the earth have also been harnessed by architects through geothermal heating elements placed under the building. In terms of urban electricity supply, wind turbines are an important source. It could also be used on a smaller scale for residential buildings.
Natural resources should be spared as far as possible. These include the use of sustainably produced renewable raw materials as well as the safe recycling of used substances. As a sustainable alternative to conventional wood, for example, bamboo is becoming increasingly popular. Because it grows faster than ordinary tree species. Local providers are to be preferred in order to reduce transport routes and to maintain the global balance.
Recycling and durability
The choice of building materials should focus on which raw materials can be reused. Can elements of the original structure be preserved or converted during the conversion of buildings? Are there any leftover materials from other construction projects, such as paper, aluminum or plastics? The use of collected rainwater to irrigate outdoor areas is also helpful. In this context, care should generally be taken to use buildings as long as possible before they are rebuilt or demolished. Preservation of historical monuments and the protection of cultural property are important issues here. Living sustainably also means maintaining cultural heritage.
Construction and utilization phase
The planning of buildings also includes the interior design. The electrical appliances play a special role, which are constantly optimized in terms of their energy consumption. In some countries, there are even tax deductions when replacing existing equipment such as refrigerators, washing machines or dishwashers with energy-saving models. Already during the construction phase, the required energy should be used consciously and sparingly and renewable energy should be preferred.
Economy and Social
The Guide to Sustainable Building also highlights the economic and social aspects of construction. The economic quality puts the focus on the profitability of the property over the entire life cycle. Area efficiency, reusability and durability are in focus. Sociocultural aspects combine health, comfort, satisfaction and comfort of users. Thus, high user satisfaction in terms of sustainability has a positive effect on the building and leads to a special appreciation and value stability of the building.